Footnotes

1.To view a text of the international human rights instruments, visit the website of the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights http://www.unhchr.ch/. Most of New Zealand 's human rights obligations are summarised in the Handbook on International Human Rights (2nd ed.) by the New Zealand Ministry of Foreign Affairs & Trade (2003). [Return to chapter ]

2.Special measures may also be referred to as affirmative action and can range from providing a specific remedy for discrimination to deliberately selecting members of groups that are negatively represented in areas such as education to ensure the equality of the group. This is further discussed in Chapter 3: The right to equality and freedom from discrimination. [Return to chapter ]

3. The concept of progressive realisation of standards constitutes recognition of the fact that full realisation of all economic, social and cultural rights generally cannot be achieved in a short period of time. It imposes an obligation to move as expeditiously and effectively as possible towards that goal (ICESCR Comment 3, Article 2, para. 1). [Return to chapter ]

4. In the next 50 years, the number of children is projected to decrease by more than 100,000 (NZ Census 2001). [Return to chapter ]

5. Some identified as more than one ethnicity. [Return to chapter ]

6. This is a crude comparison of enrolments against Census 2001 demographic data. Indications are that numbers of 0-4-year-olds enrolled in early childhood education increased in 2002 and 2003, although comparison against the 0-4-year-old population is not clear. [Return to chapter ]

7.All discussion relates to students aged 15 and over enrolled with a tertiary education provider in a formal programme of study of greater than 0.03 EFTS, regardless of level of study. [Return to chapter ]

8. Submission made to the Right to Education Discussion Document (2003) by NZ Federation of Graduate Women. [Return to chapter ]

9. NZ has one of the highest rates of young mothers in the industrialised world (Action for Children & Youth Aotearoa Report (ACYA), 2003a). There is more demand than availability of schools for young parents. [Return to chapter ]

10. Also noted by the submission made to the Right to Education Discussion Document (2003) by ADD (Rotorua) Association, Armstrong & Riddle, Association of Blind Citizens of New Zealand, CCS, DEANZ, Dunedin College of Education, IHC, Johns, Parents of Vision Impaired, Royal New Zealand Foundation of the Blind, Stoke Methodist Concerns Committee, Thompson, University of Otago and the Vision Education Agency. [Return to chapter ]

11. The ten-year strategic plan for early childhood education launched in 2002 (MED, 2002b). [Return to chapter ]

12. Submissions made to the Right to Education discussion document (2003) by McDavies, the NZFGW, NZUSA, Open Polytechnic.of NZ, QPEC, St Andrews Presbyterian Church, Hamilton , and the University of Otago. [Return to chapter ]

13. Also noted by the submission made to the Right to Education Discussion Document by the Open Polytechnic of New Zealand. [Return to chapter ]

14. The MoE has since instituted a five-year moratorium on the further closure of rural schools. [Return to chapter ]

15. In 2002 the New Zealand Immigration Service (NZIS) estimated that as at November 2001 between 1,700 and 2,900 children had overstayed their entry visa. A significant percentage of these was estimated to be Pacific children. [Return to chapter ]

16. The ISCoP came into force in March 2002 and was revised in July 2003. [Return to chapter ]

17. Stand-down is the formal removal of a student from school for a specified period. Stand-downs of a student may total no more than five school days in any term, or 10 days in a school year. After stand-downs students return automatically to school. [Return to chapter ]

Suspension is the formal removal of a student from school until the board of trustees decides the outcome at a suspension meeting. The board may decide to lift a suspension with or without conditions, to extend it or, in the most serious cases, to either exclude or expel the student. [Return to chapter ]

Exclusion means the formal removal of a student aged under 16 from the school, and the requirement that the student enroll elsewhere. [Return to chapter ]

Expulsion means the formal removal of a student aged 16 or over from the school. He or she may enroll in another school. [Return to chapter ]

18. Submissions made to the Right to Education Discussion Document (2003) by Deaf Education Aotearoa New Zealand , Deaf Education Access Forum [Return to chapter ]

19. Submissions made to the Right to Education Discussion Document (2003) by ADD (Rotorua) Association, Armstrong & Riddle, Association of Blind Citizens of New Zealand, CCS, DEANZ, Ellis, Higgins, IHC, Johns, King, Parents of Vision Impaired, Royal New Zealand Foundation of the Blind, Stoke Methodist Concerns Committee, Thompson, University of Otago and the Vision Education Agency. [Return to chapter ]

20.Submissions made to the Right to Education Discussion Document (2003) by the Education Forum, Independent Schools of New Zealand, Maxim Institute and the NZ Association for Christian Schools. [Return to chapter ]

21. Programme for International Student Assessment. [Return to chapter ]

22. What's Up Telephone Counselling Service received almost 165,000 calls during 2003. [Return to chapter ]

23. Including submissions made to the Right to Education Discussion Document (2003) by AYCA, Association of Blind Citizens of New Zealand, CCS, DEANZ, Grigg, IHC, Johns, King. [Return to chapter ]

24. Research has been undertaken nationally and internationally to develop a framework measure of social capital of a community or nation. Elements of this work include broad educational outcomes. [Return to chapter ]

25. The PISA assessment took place in 2000 and involved more than 250,000 students aged from 15 years 3 months to 16 years and 2 months. It covered three main areas of skill and knowledge, known in the study as domains. These domains were reading literacy, mathematical literacy and scientific literacy. The assessments were based on student knowledge, an ability to reflect on that knowledge and on their own experience, and to apply that knowledge and experience to real world issues. [Return to chapter ]

26. In general, girls, on average, performed better than boys; Pakeha students performed better than Asian who in turn performed better than Maori or Pacific students. Subgroups who performed well included Pakeha girls, those from high decile schools, students who come from families with a high socio-economic status, and students from single-sex schools. [Return to chapter ]

27. 'Family background', as used by the PISA reading and literacy scale, applies to the occupational status and educational attainment of parents, socio-economic status, country of birth and language spoken at home. [Return to chapter ]

28. For administrative purposes, MoE has ranked each state school into decile (10 percent) groupings. These groupings are made on the basis of census data for households with school-aged children in the areas from which each school draws students, together with ethnic data from school roll returns. Factors taken into account are: household income, parental educational qualifications and occupations, household crowding, income support and ethnicity. Decile one schools have the highest proportion of students from low socio-economic backgrounds. Decile ten schools have the highest proportion of students from high socio-economic backgrounds. [Return to chapter ]

29. SE 2000 aimed at the disestablishment of special institutions and facilities for special needs children. [Return to chapter ]

30. Submissions made to the Right to Education Discussion Document (2003) by Armstrong & Riddle, CCS, CCS Northland, DEANZ, Griggs, IHC, Johns, Parent-to-Parent, QPEC, Taranaki Action People, and Thompson. [Return to chapter ]

Top